Modules

See also

Examples

Generate a copy block for a given file

Not perfect because the output is json, but json is yaml and easy enough to fix up quickly.

# stat -c '{"copy": {"src": "SOURCE_FILE_NAME", "dest": "%n", "mode": "0%a", "owner": "%U", "group": "%G"}}' /etc/logrotate.d/backup | jq .
{
  "copy": {
    "src": "SOURCE_FILE_NAME",
    "dest": "/etc/logrotate.d/backup",
    "mode": "0644",
    "owner": "root",
    "group": "root"
  }
}

Show a list of installed modules

ansible-doc --list

Run a playbook and prompt for sudo password

ansible-playbook --ask-become-pass -i inventory/hosts.yaml create_users.yaml

Run an ad-hoc command

You can run one-off ad-hoc commands by passing a module and args to the module.

ansible localhost \
  -m get_url \
  -a "mode=755
    url=https://github.com/bcicen/ctop/releases/download/v0.7.1/ctop-0.7.1-linux-amd64
    dest=/usr/local/bin/ctop
    checksum=sha256:38cfd92618ba2d92e0e1262c0c43d7690074b4b8dc77844b654f8e565166b577
    owner=root
    group=root"

Validate and inspect your inventory file

This command parses your inventory and group_vars and outputs a json data structure if no syntax faults are found.

ansible-inventory -i inventory/hosts.yml --list

Use arbitrary groups in static inventory file

$ nl -w 2 -s ' ' -ba inventory/example.yml
 1 all:
 2   hosts:
 3     client:
 4       ansible_host: 192.168.1.2
 5     server:
 6       ansible_host: 192.168.2.3
 7
 8 linux:
 9   hosts:
10     server:
11
12 windows:
13   hosts:
14     client:
15
16 california:
17   hosts:
18     client:
19     server:
$ ansible-inventory -i inventory/example.yml --graph
@all:
  |--@california:
  |  |--client
  |  |--server
  |--@linux:
  |  |--server
  |--@windows:
  |  |--client

Merge multiple inventory files

The below example gives higher precedence to the later files.

# cat foo.yml
all:
  hosts:
    client:
      ansible_host: 192.168.1.2
      service_hostname: hostname-from-file-1
    server:
      ansible_host: 192.168.2.3
      file_number: one

# cat bar.yml
all:
  hosts:
    client:
      ansible_host: 10.1.2.3
    server:
      ansible_host: 10.2.3.4
      file_number: two

# ansible-inventory -i foo.yml -i bar.yml --list | json-to-yaml.py
_meta:
  hostvars:
    client:
      ansible_host: 10.1.2.3
      service_hostname: hostname-from-file-1
    server:
      ansible_host: 10.2.3.4
      file_number: two
all:
  children:
  - ungrouped
ungrouped:
  hosts:
  - client
  - server

Show all resolved variables for a given inventory host

This will show all host vars, including variables resolved from all the different variable locations.

ansible -i inventory target_hostname -m debug -a "var=hostvars[inventory_hostname]"

Generate an idempotent random number

This is similar to the Puppet fqdn_rand() function, which is really useful in cron jobs

---
# defaults/main.yml

demo_cron_minute: "{{ 59 | random(seed=inventory_hostname) }}"
demo_cron_hour: "{{ 23 | random(seed=inventory_hostname) }}"

See also: https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/user_guide/playbooks_filters.html#random-number-filter

Simple ansible playbook

This may be useful for testing syntax and experimenting with ansible modules.

---
# playbook.yml

- name: A local play
  hosts: localhost
  connection: local
  gather_facts: no
  tasks:
    - name: Run cmd
      shell: /bin/date
      register: cmd_out

    - debug:
        var: cmd_out.stdout

ansible-playbook -i localhost playbook.yml

Slightly more complicated example:

# playbook.yml
# run with: ansible-playbook -i localhost playbook.yml

- name: A local play
  hosts: localhost
  connection: local
  gather_facts: no
  vars:
    region: test_region
    subnets:
      - subnet_name: Public_2a
        subnet_cidr: 192.168.100.0/26
        subnet_az: "{{ region }}_a"
      - subnet_name: Public_2b
        subnet_cidr: 192.168.100.64/26
        subnet_az: "{{ region }}_b"
      - subnet_name: Private_2a
        subnet_cidr: 192.168.100.128/26
        subnet_az: "{{ region }}_a"
      - subnet_name: Private_2b
        subnet_cidr: 192.168.100.192/26
        subnet_az: "{{ region }}_b"

  tasks:
    - name: Run cmd
      shell: echo "{{ item.subnet_name }} {{ item.subnet_cidr }} {{ item.subnet_az }}"
      register: cmd_out
      loop: "{{ subnets }}"

    - debug:
        var: cmd_out

Links